Frank Kafka's "Before the Law" is a parable that explains the effects that law and decisions have on our lives. Law is represented as something unattainable The man has to pass through many gates to get to it, each one guarded by a more terrifying guard. The man tries his entire life just trying to get past the first gate, but in the end he fails. The reason for this is his decision never to venture past the guard. When he is dying, the guard tells him that the gate was made specifically for him and that he is the only one who could have ever entered it. What this is saying about our lives is that the choices we make will open and shut doors of opportunity in our lives. Sometimes, the decisions we make cause us to miss a great opportunity, as is the case for the man in the story. If he had chosen to go through the gate rather than wait for the guard, he could have been able to experience the glory he saw in the law. However, his decision to stay at the gate cost him that chance.

    I believe Kafka uses this parable to make his point because it is something easy for all of us to understand. We have all been presented with open "gates" whether literal or not, and we have all had to choose whether to enter them or not. Decisions make up our lives and shape us into who we become.
    Decisions also play a large part in SophoclesAntigone. The title character makes a decision that causes her to lose the opportunity of life. When Antigone chooses to defy the law and bury her brother, she gives up her chance to live a long life with her fiancé Haimon. This decision causes tragedy in the play by leading to multiple deaths.
    What I took away from this parable, especially by relating it to Antigone, was that the decisions we make, especially concerning the law, greatly impact our lives. The man in the story chooses to wait to reach the law and never reaches it, while Antigone chooses to break the law and in turn forfeit her future. For us, choosing to obey or break any law, whether set by our society or by our own morality, causes great impact in our lives. We could suffer cruel consequences, or (even more tragically) find that we missed out because we made the wrong choice.

In her article, "The Burial at Thebes", Prof. Mary Strange makes an interesting connection between Sophocles' Antigone and the politics of today.
America has separation of church and state due to the 1st amendment. This idea originated in ancient Greece when democracy started to emerge and people started to see that the laws of man do not always match up with the laws of the divine.
Antigone defies her uncle's decrees and buries her brother, justifying her act by saying:

"The proclamation you had your force behind it
But it was mortal force, and I, also a mortal,
I chose to disregard it. I abide
By statutes utter and immutable-
Unwritten, original, god-given laws." (29)
If we look at all the major activists of modern times such as, Martin Luther King Jr. and Gandhi, we can see that they protested laws and claimed a higher calling just like Antigone.

Essentially, what I have taken away from this article is that throughout history, moral law has proved stronger to many people than state law has. When injustice occurs in the laws of our nation, the laws of God are often used as an impetus and justification for those who work against these laws. This can be a good thing, as it was during the Civil Rights movement, but this logic can also be used to justify acts of terrorism.

I'm sure all of us are familiar with the phrase "Pride comes before the fall." Interestingly enough, this common saying may hold some significant weight according to an article from The Speculator entitled: "On Wall Street, Pride Signals a Fall."

In this article, pride is referred to a hubris which is defined as: "Presumption, originally toward the gods; pride, excessive self-confidence." 

Looking at the world of business, we can see how hubris affects success. When businesses are doing well, their leaders often start to develop hubristic views. The hubris feeling often leads to boasting and a sense of feeling "above the world." This overconfidence and pride is often followed by a drop in business. 
To test this, The Speculator writers looked at magazine covers featuring CEO's and company leaders. Data showed that companies appearing on covers like Forbes and Time started doing worse after the issue was published. If we look at this, it seems to make sense. Someone who agrees to be on the cover of a prestigious magazine most likely thinks highly of themselves and their company. They are full of hubris, and that triggers their decline. The article then goes on to show similar results with companies who purchase stadiums and who start to take over other corporations.
This sense of hubris ties in directly with tragedy. If we consider Oedipus from Sophocles' play, we are shown a clear example of hubris. Oedipus is a powerful king and the savior of his people. He sees himself as a lofty individual, and in his efforts to prove his nobility, he uncovers the secret incest that brings shame upon him. Likewise, his brother-in-law/ uncle Kreon is also full of hubris in Antigone. He is very proud and eager to show his power by punishing Antigone for her crimes. In the end, his confident ways lead to the suicides of both his son and wife.

Hubris has left its mark upon once-successful individuals. Its distinct ability to cause destruction is a good indicator to us all that we need to eat our daily helping of humble pie.
There's no surprise in the fact that Antigone, the sequel to Oedipus the King, is a tragedy. It's only fitting that the continuation of such a dark, tragic tale be just as full of suffering and sorrow. 

First off, we have our hero, Antigone. She is a brave girl who represents goodness and virtue.  Antigone is our tragic hero and therefore must make some sort of error. In her case, Antigone's mistake is based on her love for family. She is willing to break the law in order to bury her disgraced brother, and she if noble enough to own up to the crime, even though it means death. In my opinion, Antigone is a strong heroine figure because of her selflessness and compassion. These noble traits make her downfall all the more sorrowful and tragic.

I suppose just a little bit of back story might be helpful in understanding the tragedy of this story. Essentially, Antigone's twin brothers battled it out to see who would be the new king of Thebes. They both killed each other, but because Polyneices was the rebellious brother he was not honored with burial but left to be ripped up by the dogs. Also, Antigone's egotistical jerk-of-an-uncle Kreon decided to enforce the law that if anyone tries to give the body a proper burial, they will be killed.
Antigone caught in the act of burying her disgraced brother
So all that said, what makes Antigone a tragedy is all the death that takes place because of this in the tragic outcome. First, after she is caught, Antigone is sentenced to die by being sealed in a tomb and left to starve. When Kreon's son Haimon (who is also Antigone's fiancé) hears of this, he breaks into her tomb to rescue her, only to find she has hung herself. In response he kills himself, and then his mother kills herself out of grief. So in short we have one big suicide party going on down at Thebes.  In all seriousness though, I believe this ending is meant to teach the reader specifically about love.
I found this ending rather interesting because it closely relates to one of the most popular tragedies of all time, Romeo and Juliet. In both stories we have two lovers killing themselves when they can no longer be together. The fact that this theme lasted in tragic tradition all the way from Sophocles to Shakespeare shows that love is a strong catalyst in human suffering. Throughout history, the emotion of love has strongly influenced the lives of men and women. What these two works of tragedy may be trying to teach us is that love is a powerful thing that reaches beyond death and sacrifice.

   Dan Ariely provides thought provoking insight about the way we make decisions in his TED talk "Are we in control of our decisions".

    Ariely points out that almost all of our decisions are made for us due to the way they are presented. We often gain illusions from our choices that greatly influence the things we chose.
   First, Ariely shows some examples of visual illusions such as this table or this cube:

    The table on the left seems longer, but is in fact the same length as the one on the right. Similarly, the square on the top looks brown while the one on the bottom looks yellow, but they are in reality both brown. These are visual illusions that show us how easy it is to deceive our eyes. Ariely tells us that our decision making is deceived in a similar way through "cognitive illusions".
    An example of one of these "cognitive illusions" is a study on advertisement customers of the Economist. When presented with the choices of:
Print only: $89.00, Web only: $125.00, or, Print and web: $125.00, the most popular choice was Print and Web, while no one chose web only, and few chose print only. This trend occurred because the customers saw that print only had the same price as print and web together, so they chose to buy print and web because it appeared to be a good deal. Why settle for one when you can get both for not paying more?
    Interestingly, when the web only option was removed, more customers chose print only than print and web together. When the comparison was gone, they chose the cheaper option. I found this point extremely interesting because, I know I have often fallen for tricks like this. Judging something based on what you have to compare it to is in our human nature, but it often hinders us rather than helps.
    Illusions like these show us how our decisions are already made for us because what we really want is not what we consider in our decision making. We consider instead how the options are presented to us and make comparisons to alter our decisions.
    I personally believe this relates to literary tragedy because the tragic characters often fall to cognitive illusions. For example, It has been foretold that Oedipus would kill his father and marry his mother. This "pre-decided" fate influences all of Oedipus' decisions so that it eventually becomes true.


Joseph Krutch 
gives us a strong idea of his definition for tragedy in his essay "The Tragic Fallacy"

Krutch spends a lot of time specifying what tragedy is not. First, it is not an "imitation of noble actions" as Aristotle once said. This is because: a) true art cannot be defined as an imitation but an adaptation, and b) the concept of nobility is too abstract and holds different meanings for each person. I agree with this because a genre such as tragedy, which is enjoyed by people of all backgrounds and beliefs couldn't have become so popular if it were based on controversial ideas such as nobility. People must relate to tragedy somehow for it to be so well loved. And not all of us can relate to the same definition of nobility.

    Krutch goes on to show us just what it is we can relate to in tragedy, and that is a “celebration of human greatness". Tragedy is not a dark gloomy genre, but is in fact "an expression not of despair, but of the triumph over despair and of confidence in the value of human life." What I concluded from this is that tragedy may include sad or depressing situations based on the fact of human suffering, but it does so in order to show us that humans possess the passion, power, and perseverance to come through that suffering. Essentially, it's a testament to how capable we are.

    One last point that "The Tragic Fallacy" makes is that tragedies still have "happy" endings. This may seem farfetched due to the fact that tragedy is characterized by suffering, but Krutch explains this statement clearly:
     "Whatever the character of events, fortunate or unfortunate, which they recount, they (the authors) so mold or arrange or interpret them that we accept gladly the conclusion which they reach and would not have it otherwise."

    Essentially, even though it's sad that Juliet kills herself (for example), we as readers can be satisfied with the strong act of passion, strength, and meaning her death holds. As Krutch says:"We accept gladly the outward defeats which it describes for the sake of the inward victories which it reveals."
    So even if tragedies don't have a "happily ever after", we can still find satisfaction in their meaningful endings.

  SophoclesOedipus Rex is a clear, classic example of tragedy. Looking back on the standards Aristotle set for tragedy, we can see how this play fits the mold perfectly.

    First, the tragedy must have a hero who makes a mistake. Our hero is Oedipus. He has become king of Thebes by answering the riddle of the sphinx, and now he is anxious to avenge Laius, the previous king, in order to end the plague of misfortune on the land. Oedipus' mistake was made long before he was king. Since it was prophesied he would kill his father and marry his mother, he specifically stayed away from the couple who had raised him. On his journey he ends up killing the king of Thebes, and goes on to marry his wife. Little does he know that he was adopted, and the man he killed, along with the bride he now has are his true parents. This is truly a tragic mistake because Oedipus went to great lengths to avoid the prophecy, but in the process came to fulfill it.
    Another important requirement Oedipus Rex fits as a tragedy 
is the tragic outcome of the tale. When the truth of his deeds is revealed, 
Jocasta, Oedipus' wife/mother, kills herself in shame and grief. Oedipus takes 
the pins from her robes and gouges out his eyes in violent fashion. Also, 
another tragic act is the murder of Laius by his own son who is unaware of his 
    Oedipus grows from this tragic experience, by 
changing from a somewhat arrogant king to a lowly blind man who is disgraced. 
The price of learning the truth of his identity is the fact that he has to live 
with the horrors of that truth.
In my opinion, these requirements Aristotle puts into place which Oedipus Rex follows are a meaningful and useful view on tragedy. It is interesting to see that stories like this are not meant just to be sad or depressing, but they contain a lesson learned by the character that is applicable to the lives of you and me. The pattern followed in this story helps me see the sadness and loss within the play. Oedipus really doesn't know of what he's done. He has spent so much time and effort to avoid the prophecy, but it was all a waste. The harshness of this drives the point Sophocles is trying to make home for me: that pride comes before the fall.

    In his essay "Tragedy and the Common Man" Arthur Miller provides an in depth look at tragedy in literature. He starts out by correcting the common association of tragedy and nobility or royalty. Often, we view tragedy as something experienced by people in great power, such as many of the heroes of classic tragic works like Hamlet and Oedipus Rex. We think of it as something above ourselves but Miller argues that regular people like us can experience and relate to tragedy.
    Miller goes on to explain that we can relate to tragedy because of the feelings evoked by it. The characters are ready to die in order to protect their dignity. Tragedies are defined by heroes struggling to "gain their 'rightful' position in society". The hero either loses his place or longs to gain a higher position, and spends the entire story in attempts to gain that dignity.    What is then revealed is something called the "tragic flaw", which is essentially something that stands for the character's unwillingness to ignore whatever challenges his dignity. This flaw is used to make the character start to question things about the world which they have never doubted before. There is an "underlying fear of being displaced" that readers can directly relate to. I can relate to this feeling because in our society people are always watching to see you fall. Look at all of the tabloid magazines who broadcast and delight in the mistakes that celebrities make. Reputation is the hardest thing to keep clean, and redemption is near impossible. Everyone fears that they will lose the favor of the world. 
    The tragic flaw also leads to a revelation of moral laws to the character. This allows the character to grow and realize his fears in order to weigh how much he is willing to give to regain his dignity.
    Lastly, Miller talks about the misconception that tragedy is full of pessimism. He claims that even though a story has a "sad" ending, it can actually be rather optimistic. The hero in a tragedy gives his all to achieve his rightful place, reaffirming for readers the "indestructible will of man to achieve his humanity." Tragedy has to hold some hope for victory. If it does not, it is defined as pathos rather than tragedy. Pathos involves characters fighting battles they have no chance of winning, while tragedy has a "nicer balance between what is possible and what is impossible. In the end, tragedy embodies hope in the "perfectibility" of man.

Miller's view of tragedy was very insightful for me. I like how his formula helps draw meaning from tragedy and helps identify themes within the stories. I can also see just how tragedy can relate to common people. We all have flaws and fight to keep our dignity and reputation.

  In this video, Alain De Botton shares quite a bit of insight about how we as humans view success and failure. He also ties in how literary tragedy relates to all of this.
    First, De Botton states that in our modern times, career anxiety has become increasingly common. Everyone experiences an inevitable moment when, "...what we thought we knew about our lives, about our careers, comes into contact with a threatening sort of reality..." 
    He says that one of the reasons we feel this anxiety is because of snobbery around us. He defines a "snob" as someone who uses only a small part of you to judge who you are entirely. Essentially, the respect they show you is directly related to how much power your position holds. I can relate to this (as I am sure many of us can) and I find this definition for snobbery very fitting. In my own life I have let others' opinion of me cause me to feel like a failure. 
    Another reason for this anxiety is that we have extremely high hopes for our careers. In this day and age, people are essentially equal, so there is more competition. With this equality also comes envy. This envy is rooted in our societal definitions of success versus failure.

We live in a meritocratic society, which means we believe that people become successful because of their talent and hard work. People are successful because they deserve it. The problem with this philosophy is that if you base success on merit you are also saying that those at the bottom, the "losers", deserve to be there as well. This is cruel because we cannot be successful at everything, and we shouldn't be labeled as losers because of the things we fail at.
    If this were true, all of the heroes in tragic works would be losers. We cannot say they are losers simply because they lost. De Botton explains that tragedy is an art showing how people fail, and it allows them sympathy. The reason we want to label characters like Hamlet as losers is because our ideas of success and failure come from people other than ourselves. Our families, traditions, and media force ideas of these concepts upon us. De Botton stresses that we need to get rid of these ideas and define success and failure for ourselves.

What I have taken away from this video is the realization that failure and success are in the eye of the beholder. Just because I may not live up to society's ideal image, does not mean that I have failed. Basically, my own opinions determine whether I have succeeded or failed.

"That's so tragic!"
This phrase is commonly found in 21st century high schools everywhere. We use it to describe events that are unfortunate. From the break-up of a popular couple, to a car accident in the student lot, we use the word "tragedy" to describe it. I have always thought of tragedy as just as sad story, but what is tragedy really? Where did it originate and What properties define a tragic work?
  As with many literary concepts, tragedy finds its origins in Greek drama. Back in the day, all those famous philosophers (such as Aristotle, Sophocles, and all those other wise guys) developed the art of tragedy. The concept has been altered over the years by Roman's and European's alike, but the same basic principles apply.

And what are those basic principles you ask?
    Well, first, tragedy by definition is (according to Wikipedia):
"...a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes in its audience an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in the viewing."

    So essentially, it is a form of entertainment that teaches us to delight in the pain of others. That seems a little harsh, but I suppose it's fair enough. In Aristotle's definition, a tragic story starts out with a hero who makes some sort of error that is specifically unrelated to any flaws the character possesses or any outside cause. The character then suffers greatly due to his/her mistake and, in the words of Aristotle, undergoes "a change from ignorance to awareness of a bond of love or hate." 
    Since Aristotle's days, others have argued different theories about tragedy. G.W.F. Hegel, for example, believed that in modern tragedy, individuals’ "self-destructive passions" cause their own tragic events. Still, tragedy at its core is a look at human suffering and the events that cause it.

These are new thoughts for me personally. I had always just defined tragedy as a story with a bad (unhappy) ending, but it is more than that. It involves the inner-workings of the characters more than anything. The tragic events that befall them depend directly on their strengths, weaknesses, decisions, and actions. Also, there is a purpose to it. Tragedies aren't just meant to make us cry, they're intended to teach us about life and help us learn from the mistakes of others.

I think tragedy is probably the most relatable form of literature because all humans make mistakes and suffer the consequences. We can sympathize with the characters and apply what they learn to our own lives.

So the next time you refer to something as "tragic", be sure to check and see that the situation fits the specifics for the genre. The philosophers of old will thank you.